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The International Criminal Court (ICC) this week issued arrest warrants for two senior Russian officials accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity for their role in Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the Associated Press reported.

On Tuesday, the Netherlands-based tribunal accused former Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu and military chief of staff Gen. Valery Gerasimov of being responsible for civilian attacks in Ukraine.

The allegations center on the period between October 2022 and March 2023, when Russia launched a wave of missile and drone strikes on Ukraine that killed thousands and damaged key infrastructure, including its energy system.

The court alleged there was reasonable ground to believe that Shoigu – who served as Russia’s defense minister at the time – and Gerasimov were responsible for “missile strikes carried out by the Russian armed forces against the Ukrainian electric infrastructure” during that period.

Moscow has insisted that the strikes mainly targeted military installations, despite the civilian casualties. However, ICC judges stated that the attacks targeted civilians and that any potential military targets would have caused excessive civilian harm compared with any anticipated military advantage.

Shoigu and Gerasimov are two of the key figures in Russia’s decision to invade Ukraine on Feb. 24, 2022.

Shoigu, a long-time ally of Russian President Vladimir Putin and defense minister for 12 years, was replaced last month by economist Andrey Belousov, CNN wrote.

Gerasimov has led Russia’s armed forces for over a decade and was key in planning the Ukraine invasion. He was appointed overall commander of the campaign in January 2023.

It is unlikely that either suspect will be detained because Russia is not a member of the global court, does not recognize its jurisdiction and has refused to hand over other individuals.

Tuesday’s announcement marks the third time the court has issued arrest warrants against Russian officials: Last year, the ICC made headlines when it requested Putin’s arrest after accusing him of personal responsibility for the abductions of children from Ukraine.

Separately, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Russia committed human rights violations in Crimea since its annexation in 2014, Radio Free Europe noted.

The court found that Russia harassed and intimidated priests and journalists, and unlawfully detained and prosecuted Ukrainian political prisoners.

Kyiv alleged that Russia – which has controlled Crimea since February 27, 2014 – has tortured and killed police and civilians, accusations that Moscow denies.

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